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Essential oils:  A-C    D-L    M-P    Q-Z

M-P
Marjoram
Melissa
Myrrh
Neroli (Orange Blossom)
Niaouli
Nutmeg
Onion
Orange decolourized
Orange bitter
Orange sweet
Oregano
Palmarosa
Patchouli light & dark
Peppermint
Pepper black
Petitgrain mandarin
Pine scotch
Pimento berries
  • Welcome to Essential oils from M-P.

  • Marjoram, Sweet

    Botanical binomial: Marjorana hortensis

    Family: Lamiaceae (Labiatae)

    Other names: Origanum marjorana, French marjoram, moench, sweet marjoram

    Country of Origin: Hungary

    Part of plant used in production: Dried, flowering herb

    Methods of production: Steam distillation

    Description: A strongly aromatic bushy perennial plant with a hairy stem and dark green oval leaves. The flowers form small whitish-grey clusters.
    Characteristics: A yellow to yellow-green essential oil with a warm, woody, spicy-camphoraceous odour.
    Properties: Analgesic, anaphrodisiac, antioxidant, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antiviral, bactericidal, carminative, cephalic, digestive, diuretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, fungicidal, hypotensive, laxative, nervine, sedative, tonic, vasodilator, vulnerary.
    Constituents: Sabinene (3.0%), terpenine (0-3%), terpenine (3-17%), terpinolene (14-19%), terpinen-4-ol (0-31%), linalool (12-14%), limonene (trace-1.8%).
    Uses: Used in many foods and beverages. Also common in fougeres, chypres, colognes and oriental bases for perfumes due to it's medicinal-aromatic warmth. It has a calming effect on the nervous system and is therfore beneficial for overcoming grief or loneliness, muscle strains, sprains and spasms, as well as respiratory problems.
    Blends well with Bergamot, chamomile, lavender, orange, nutmeg, rosemary, ylang-ylang.
    Interesting Facts: "Sweet marjoram was a very popular medicinal plant with the ancient Greeks. It was used for it's soothing, warming and fortifying properties. Marjoram's very name suggests ""joy of the mountains."" "
    Safety: Non-toxic, non-irritant, non-sensitizing. Not to be used during pregnancy.
  • Melissa

    Botanical binomial: Melissa officinalis

    Family: Lamiaceae (Labiatae)

    Other names: Lemon balm, sweet balm, honeyplant, heart's delight

    Country of Origin: n/a (Europe)

    Part of plant used in production: Leaves and tops of herb

    Methods of production: Steam distillation

    Description: A sweet-scented bushy herb with serrated leaves and tiny white or pink flowers. Three tonnes of plant material is required to yield 0.5 L of oil.
    Characteristics: A warm, floral-herbaceous, lemon-like scent is emitted from the colourless oil.
    Properties: Antidepressant, antispasmodic, bactericidal, carminative, cordial, diaphoretic, emmenogogue, febrifuge, hypotensive, nervine, sedative, stomachic, sudorific, tonic.
    Constituents: Geranial (1-48%), neral (0.6-36%), citronellal (2-38%), linalool (0.5-3%), geranyl acetate (trace-6%), geraniol (trace-23%), caryophyllene (0.3-29%).
    Uses: Melissa's antiviral properties are used to treat herpes, smallpox, mumps and influenza. It may be used to settle upset stomachs, nausea and indigestion. It is uplifting acting as an antidepressant.
    Blends well with Bergamot, cedarwood, geranium, jasmine, lavender, lemon, sweet marjoram, neroli, rose, ylang-ylang.
    Interesting Facts: "The name Melissa comes from the Greek ""honey bee"" referring to the bee's attraction to its flower and the quality of honey produced from it. It was called the 'elixir of life' by Paracelsus being used for nervous disorders, the heart and emotions. "
    Safety: Non-toxic, possibly sensitizing and a dermal irritant. Best used in small doses.
  • Myrrh

    Botanical binomial: Commiphora myrrha

    Family: Burseraceae

    Other names: Balsamodendrom myrrha, molmol, Gum myrrh,myrrha

    Country of Origin: Somalia

    Part of plant used in production: Crude oleoresin obtained from cuts in stems

    Methods of production: Steam distillation

    Description: Commiphora is a species of shrubs that grows in desert regions. A pale yellow liquid oozes out of the trunk and stems and hardens into a reddish-brown substance known as myrrh. This process is amplified by insicions on the bark of the tree by humans.
    Characteristics: Myrrh oil is pale yellow to pale orange or light-brown to green in colour. It's pungent odour is warm and peppery with a sharp-balsamic note.
    Properties: Anticatarrhal, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiseptic, astringent, carminative, cicatrisant, emmenoogue, expectorant, fungicidal, sedative, digestive and pulmonary stimulant, tonic, vulnerary.
    Constituents: Curzerene (12%), furanoeudesma-1,3-diene (13%), curzerenone (12%), lindestrene (4%).
    Uses: Myrrh is renown for it's spiritual purposes in rituals, healing and meditation. It can be burned as an insence or in an oil burner or inhaled directly. It is usually combined with frankinsence to enhance emotional and/or spiritual liberty. Myrrh is also used in floral, forest or moss-like perfumes, mouthwashes and throat medicines. Other uses include: clearing coughs and colds due to it's expectorant properties, cleansing of toxins, promoting tissue repair, warming and stimulating the stomach, and in assisting prolonged or difficult childbirth.
    Blends well with Frankinsence, lavender, patchouli, rose, sandalwood, tea tree, and thyme.
    Interesting Facts: Myrrh was used as an ingredient in many ancient Egyptian facial preparations to cool the skin and reserve the youthful complexion. It's ability to preserve flesh was taken for embalming.
    Safety: Non-irritant, non-sensitizing, may be toxic in high concentrations. A dilution of 8% is recommended.Not to be used during pregnancy as it is a uterine stimulant.
  • Neroli

    Botanical binomial: Citrus aurantium var. amara

    Family: Rutaceae

    Other names: orange flower blossom, C. bigaradia, bitter orange flower oil, oleum neroli, esencia de azahar, oleum aurantii florum, aurantii amari floris aetheroleum

    Country of Origin: Italy

    Part of plant used in production: Flowers

    Methods of production: Steam distillation

    Description: Neroli is the name given to the oil extracted from the white flower blossoms of bitter orange trees. These evergreen trees grow up to 10 metres tall with thick, glossy leaves and thorns.
    Characteristics: A colourless to pale yellow essential oil. Neroli has a light, fresh, sweet-floral fragrance with a hint of citrus.
    Properties: Antidepressant, antiseptic, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, bactericidal, carminative, cicatrisant, deodorant, digestive, stimulant.
    Constituents: Limonene (trace), linalool (24%), linalyl acetate (69%), citral (trace-0.3%), farnesol (trace-4%).
    Uses: Neroli is considered an effective sedative and antidepressant used as a tranquilizer for anxiety and insomnia. It has also been used in foot massage for cardiac surgery patients. Neroli oil is used in fine perfumery as in the original eau de Cologne. It may be used for all skin types to treat sensitive and inflamed skin as well as broken capillaries under the skin's surface.
    Blends well with Bergamot, clary sage, German and Roman chamomile, frankinsense, geranium, jasmine, lavender, lemon, lime, orange, palmarosa, rose, rosemary, sandalwood, ylang-ylang.
    Interesting Facts: Although bitter and sweet orange oils have been in use since the first century, Neroli was not discovered until near the end of the seventeenth century. Iit's name originating after Anna Maria de la Tremoille, Princess of Nerola. It was valued at the time for it's effectiveness in treating the plague and other fevers.
    Safety: Non-toxic, non-sensitising and non-irritating. Best if diluted at 4%.
  • Niaouli

    Botanical binomial: Melaleuca viridiflora

    Family: Myrtacea

    Other names: Gomenol

    Country of Origin: Madagascar

    Part of plant used in production: Leaves and young twigs

    Methods of production: Steam distillation

    Description: Niaouli is an evergreen tree native to Australia and New Caledonia. It has a flexible trunk and spongy bark, pointed leaves and spikes of still flowers.
    Characteristics: A colourless, pale yellow or greenish oul with a sweet, fresh, camphoraceous scent.
    Properties: Analgesic, antirheumatic, antiseptic, bactericide, cicatrisant, decongestant, febrifuge, stimulant,vermifuge, vulnerary.
    Constituents: 1-8-cineole, terpineol, limonene, phellandrene, and pinene, linalool, and pipertone.
    Uses: Considered a superb antiseptic for treating pulmonary infections such as bronchitis, catarrh, and sinus. Aids healing acne, boils, ulcers, burns and cuts. Useful for cleaning wounds. A stimulant on the mind and spirit.
    Blends well with Basil, cajeput, eucalyptus, fennel, juniper, lavender, lemon, lime, myrtle, orange, pine, rosemary, peppermint, tea tree, thyme.
    Interesting Facts: Niaouli was introduced to Europe in the seventeenth century by voyagers. It's botanical name was assigned during Captain Cook's voyage to Australia.
    Safety: Non-toxic, non-sensitizing, non-irritant.
  • Nutmeg Oil

    Botanical binomial: Myristica fragrans Houtt.

    Family: Myristicaceae

    Other names: Myristicaceae officinalis, myristica oil, myristicae fragrantis aetheroleum, oleum myristicae

    Country of Origin: East and West Indies, Sri Lanka, Grenada and Indonesia

    Part of plant used in production: Dried nutmeg seeds

    Methods of production: Steam distillation

    Description: Nutmeg trees are evergreens consisting of egg-shaped seeds.
    Characteristics: A colourless to almost colourless or pale yellow essential oil or pale green, with a light fresh, warm spicy and aromatic odour of nutmeg.
    Properties: Anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-oxidant, anti- spasmodic
    Constituents: alpha-pinene (10-27%), beta-pinene (7-18%), Sabinene (15-51%), Myrcene (2-4%), Limonene (2-7%), Linalool (trace 0.4%), Citronellal (trace 0.2%), Citronnellol (trace-0.2%), Eugenol (trace-0.2%), 1,8-cineole (1-4%), Terpinen-4-ol (2-18%), Myristicin (0.5-13.5%), Elemicin (0.3-5%), Safrole (1-2.1%).
    Uses: Uses for nutmeg essential oils include
    Blends well with: calming and relaxing, relieving pain, arthritis, gout, muscular aches, poor circulation, stimulating, digestion, indigestion, nausea, flatulence, frigidity, impotence, neuralgia, nervous fatigue, labour pains, debility.
    Interesting Facts: Lavender, rosemary, orange, black pepper, clary sage, eucalyptus, ginger and ylang ylang.
    Safety: Due to the myristicin content, nutmeg essential oil is relatively toxic that can result in a profound effect on the CNS.
  • Onion oil

    Botanical binomial: Allium cepa

    Family: Liliaceae

    Other names: Onion Allium cepa Liliaceae

    Country of Origin: Hungary

    Part of plant used in production:

    Methods of production: Steam distillation

    Description: Onion is a perennial or biennial herb native to Asia and the Middle East with over 500 species in its genus. It can grow up to 1.9 metres tall with hallow leaves and a fleshy stem. The bulb is globe-like and succulent.
    Characteristics: Onion oil is pale yellow to brownish-yellow with a strong sulphuraceous odour that has a lachrymatory (tear-producing) effect.
    Properties: Antimicrobial, antirheumatic, antiseptic, antisclerotic, antispasmodic, antiviral, bactericidal, carminative, depurative, digestive, diuretic, expectorant, fungicidal, hypocholesterolaemic, hypoglycaemic, hypotensive, stomachic, tonic, vermifuge.
    Constituents: Dipropyl disulphide, methylpropyl disulphide, dipropyl trisulphide, methylpropyl trisulphide and allylpropyl disulphide.
    Uses: A great anti-stress remedy which aids in overcoming colds and flus. Ravensara eases insomnia, anxiety and nervous tension. It assists with respiratory problems, cuts, wounds, and burns, cold sores and athlete's foot.
    Blends well with Clove, eucalyptus, lavender, rosemary
    Interesting Facts:
    Safety: Not to be taken during pregnancy. Internal use not recommended.
  • Orange decolourized

    Botanical binomial: Citrus sinensis L.

    Family: Rutaceae

    Other names: Sweet Orange, C. aurantium L. var. sinensis L./var dulcis L.

    Country of Origin: USA, Brazil, China, the West Indies and Spain.

    Part of plant used in production: Fruit rinds

    Methods of production: Cold expression

    Description: Sweet orange is a popular essential oil, where the rinds of the fruit are cold-pressed.
    Characteristics: Clear
    Properties: fresh and yet bitter, dry-like with a rich and lasting sweet undertone.
    Constituents: Anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-spasmodic, anti-inflammatory, carminative, stomachic, immunity enhancer, circulation booster.
    Uses: Limonene (94-98%), Myrcene (1-4%), alpha-Pinene (0.1-0.4%), Sabinene (trace-2%), Octanal (trace-0.2%), Decanal (0.1-2.5%)
    Blends well with: As a detoxifier, it boosts immunity, treats constipation and dyspepsia and aids in the maintenance of healthy, smooth and beautiful skin. Along with curing acne and dermatitis. Used for rejuvenating of the skin, eczema, dermatitis, after-sun wrinkles, oily skin, fatigue, menopause, oedema, palpitation, premenstrual tension, stress, obesity, mount ulcers, colds, flue, bronchitis, constipation, spasms.
    Interesting Facts: Lavender, Bergamot, Lemon, Clary Sage, Myrrh, Sandalwood, Nutmeg, Cinnamon Bark, Clove Bud.
    Safety: Considered phototoxic, please avoid direct sunlight after usage.
  • Orange, bitter

    Botanical binomial: Citrus aurantium subsp. amara

    Family: Rutaceae

    Other names: Seville orange, sour orange, bigrade, petitgrain

    Country of Origin: Spain

    Part of plant used in production: Fresh peel

    Methods of production: Cold pressed

    Description: An evergreen tree native to China and India with juicy fruit and spiny branches. Today, oranges are cultivated around the Mediterranean region, Israel and the Americas.
    Characteristics: Bitter orange has a yellow to brown colour and smells of semi-sweet citrus, fresh yet bitter with a woody-herbaceous undertone.
    Properties: Anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, carminative, diuretic, expectorant, fungicidal, hypocholesterolaemic, hypotensive, stomachic, sedative, tonic.
    Constituents: Limonene (73-98%), linalool (19-27%), linalyl acetate (46-55%), myrcene (1-11%), pinene (0.3-1.4%), 1,8-cineole (0.7-9%).
    Uses: Bitter orange is good for digestive problems such as constipation and flatulence, relieving stress and anxiety, fighting colds, and soothing mouth ulcers. It is used in perfumery, cosmetics, bath and body oils, and flavouring chocolate and confectionery.
    Blends well with Bergamot, clary sage, cypress, geranium, juniper, jasmine, lavender, neroli, nutmeg, rosemary, tangerine, ylang-ylang.
    Interesting Facts: Bitter orange is one of the classic ingredients in Eau de Cologne. It is also called Petitgrain (little grainン) because the oil was originally distilled from small, unripe fruit. It is believed that Citrus aurantium is the Persian orange known for it's bitterness which was brought to Italy in the 11th century.
    Safety: Non-toxic, non-irritant and non-sensitizing.
  • Orange Sweet Oil

    Botanical binomial: Citrus sinensis L.

    Family: Rutaceae

    Other names: Sweet Orange, C. aurantium L. var. sinensis L./var dulcis L.

    Country of Origin: USA, Brazil, China, the West Indies and Spain.

    Part of plant used in production: Fruit rinds

    Methods of production: Cold expression

    Description: Sweet orange is a popular essential oil, where the rinds of the fruit are cold-pressed.
    Characteristics: Deep yellow to orangey, olive-yellow and even brownish with a citrus-like odour reminiscent of the species
    Properties: fresh and yet bitter, dry-like with a rich and lasting sweet undertone.
    Constituents: Anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-spasmodic, anti-inflammatory, carminative, stomachic, immunity enhancer, circulation booster.
    Uses: Limonene (94-98%), Myrcene (1-4%), alpha-Pinene (0.1-0.4%), Sabinene (trace-2%), Octanal (trace-0.2%), Decanal (0.1-2.5%)
    Blends well with: As a detoxifier, it boosts immunity, treats constipation and dyspepsia and aids in the maintenance of healthy, smooth and beautiful skin. Along with curing acne and dermatitis. Used for rejuvenating of the skin, eczema, dermatitis, after-sun wrinkles, oily skin, fatigue, menopause, oedema, palpitation, premenstrual tension, stress, obesity, mount ulcers, colds, flue, bronchitis, constipation, spasms.
    Interesting Facts: Lavender, Bergamot, Lemon, Clary Sage, Myrrh, Sandalwood, Nutmeg, Cinnamon Bark, Clove Bud.
    Safety: Considered phototoxic, please avoid direct sunlight after usage.
  • Oregano oil

    Botanical binomial: Origanum vulgare

    Family: Lamiaceae (Labiatae)

    Other names: origanum oil

    Country of Origin: Hungary

    Part of plant used in production: Dried flowering herb

    Methods of production: Steam distillation

    Description: Origanum vulgare is the original wild species (native to Europe) which is now widely cultivated all over the world. The plant grows up to 0.9 metres tall bearing a strong, hairy stem, dark ovate leaves and small purplish-pink flowers. Oregano is a common garden herb which is highly aromatic when the leaves are bruised.
    Characteristics: A pale yellow oil that darkens with age, oregano emits a spicy, herbaceous and warm camphoraceous scent.
    Properties: Analgesic, antirheumatic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antiviral, bactericidal, carminative, choleretic, cytophylactic, diaphoretic, diuretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, febrifuge, fungicidal, parasiticide, stimulant, tonic, vermifuge.
    Constituents: Carvacrol (80.5%), caryophyllen (3.04%),terpinen (2.25%), para-cymen (2.24%), +/-borneol (2.0%), linalool (1.45%), thymol (1.44%), s- hydrate (1.13%).
    Uses: Oregano is widely used for treating colds, coughs/bronchitis, chronic pain, skin and fungal conditions such as yeast infections, and insect bites due to its aniseptic, bactericidal, expectorant and fungicidal properties. Other uses include men's colognes and soaps. It is also used in flavouring foods such as meat products and pizzas.
    Blends well with Lavandin, oakmoss, pine, spike lavender, citronella, rosemary,and cedarwood.
    Interesting Facts: In China, oregano oil is used to treat fevers, vomiting, diarrhoea, jaundice, itchy skin conditions as well as inflammations of the mouth and throat.
    Safety: Skin irritant, non-toxic, Since oregano is very potent, it is important to dilute it properly (10% or more). Extensive internal use (high doses for long periods of time) is not recommended as the phenols may be damaging to the liver and kidneys. Do not use if pregnant.
  • Palmarosa

    Botanical binomial: Cymbopogon martini

    Family: Germineae

    Other names: Anthropogon martini, Wats var. martini, East Indian geranium

    Country of Origin: Nepal

    Part of plant used in production: Fresh or dried grass

    Methods of production: Steam distillation

    Description: Palmarosa is a wild growing plant related to lemongrass. It has fragrant leaves, long slender stems and terminal flowering tops. It originates from India but is now cultivated in various other countries. .
    Characteristics: A pale yellow or olive coloured essential oil that has a sweet, floral, slightly dry fragrance with an herbaceous undertone and a hint of rose.
    Properties: Antiseptic, bactericidal, cytophylactic, febrifuge, hydrating, tonic to the digestive system.
    Constituents: Geraniol (72-86%), linalool (2-4%), limonene (trace-0.5%), geranyl acetate (5-11%), farnesol (0.3-1.5%).
    Uses: Palmarosa is used widely in perfumery and soap making for rose- and geranium-like scents. It has a calming and uplifting effect on the emotions as well as a hydrating effect on the skin. Palmarosa is used to stimulate cellular regeneration, helping decrease acne, scars, dermatitis, and wrinkles.
    Blends well with Citronella, geranium, jasmine, lavender, lime, neroli, orange, petitgrain, rose, sandalwood, ylang-ylang.
    Interesting Facts: Traditionally, Palmarosa has been used to treat anorexia, nervous exhaustion, stress, and for normalizing intestinal flora. It is often used to adulterate expensive rose oils.
    Safety: Non-toxic, non-irritant. May be sensitizing to some individuals. Dilutions of 8% are recommended for topical use.
  • Patchouli light and dark

    Botanical binomial: Pogostemon patchouli

    Family: Lamiaceae (Labiatae)

    Other names: P. patchouly var. suavis

    Country of Origin: Guatemala

    Part of plant used in production: Sun dried leaves and young shoots

    Methods of production: Steam distillation

    Description: A perennial herb growing up to 1 metre high with a sturdy, hairy stem, large, fragrant, furry leaves and white flowers.
    Characteristics: Patchouli oil is a viscous dark orange or brown with a strong, earthy, sweet-herbaceous, woody-balsamic, long-lasting odour.
    Properties: Antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, aphrodisiac, astringent, cicatrisant, cytophylactic, deodorant, diuretic, febrifuge, fungicidal, insecticidal, sedative.
    Constituents: Patchouli alcohol (31-58%), guaiene (10-15%), caryophyllene (2-4%), bulnesene (2-4%), seychellene(6-9%), patchouline (3-6%), patchouline (1-5%), pogostol (0-3%).
    Uses: Perfumery- including oriental bases, woody bases, fougeres and chypres.
    Blends well with Bergamot, black pepper, clary sage, frankincense, geranium, ginger, lavender, lemongrass, myrrh, neroli, rose, rosewood, sandalwood, and ylang-ylang.
    Interesting Facts: Patchouli was a renown antidote to snake and insect bites in India and China.In the Victorian era, it was used to treat Indian carpets from deteriorating from insects and fungi.
    Safety: A 10% dilution is recommended. Non-toxic, non-sensitizing, non-irritant.
  • Peppermint

    Botanical binomial: Mentha piperita

    Family: Lamiaceae (Labiatae)

    Other names: Mitcham mint, balm mint, brandy mint

    Country of Origin: Hungary

    Part of plant used in production: Leaves and flowering tops

    Methods of production: Steam distillation

    Description: A perennial herb with underground runners which make it easy to propagate. Peppermint, which has several different species, is the most common of the mints as it is highly valued for its therapeutic properties.
    Characteristics: Peppermint oil is colourless to pale yellow and has a piercing grassy-menthol refreshing odour with a deep balsamic undertone.
    Properties: Analgesic, anaesthetic, antiphlogistic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, astringent, carminative, cephalic, decongestant, emmenagogue, expectorant, hepatic, nervine, stimulant, stomachic, sudorific, vasoconstrictor, vermifuge.
    Constituents: Menthol (27-50%), menthone (13-32%), isomenthone (2-10%), 1,8-cineole (5-14%), limonene (1-3%), pinene (1.8%), pinene (1.4%)
    Uses: Peppermint is recommended by many professionals for its uplifting and energizing attributes. It allows people to clear their minds and refresh the spirits, promoting concentration. This makes it wonderful for offices, conference rooms and classrooms. The oil is proven to benefit those with digestive disorders such as indigestion, stomach pains, flatulence and diarrhea. Because it is a strong anaesthetic, peppermint oil relieves soft tissue pain, joint pain and insect bites. It also cools the skin, easing irritation and inflammation.
    Blends well with Basil, bergamot, cajeput, cedarwood, cypress, eucalyptus, lemon, lime, marjoram, niaouli, pine, rosemary, spearmint, thyme.
    Interesting Facts: Mint has been mentioned in many ancient herbals including those of the Egyptians and Greeks. The word mint is derived from Minthe, a nymph in Greek mythology who was turned into a plant by a jealous Persephone. Pluto who was in love with Minthe could not turn her back, so he gave the plant a fragrant aroma instead.
    Safety: Dilute at 1-8%. Non-toxic, non-irritant, may be sensitizing due to menthol.
  • Pepper Black Oil

    Botanical binomial: Piper nigrum L.

    Family: Piperaceae

    Other names: Pepper Oil

    Country of Origin: Sri Lanka

    Part of plant used in production: Pepper corns

    Methods of production: Steam distillation

    Description: Black pepper is a flowering vine consisting of berries that when dried are called peppercorns.
    Characteristics: Colourless, pale yellow or pale greenish-grey with a fresh, dry-woody, warm spicy pungent odour, reminiscent of peppercorns.
    Properties: Gastrointestinal stimulant, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-spasmodic, anti-rheumatic, anti-arthritic, and anti-oxidant.
    Constituents: alpha-pinene (5.8%), beta-pinene (10.4%), δ-3-carene (20.2%), Limonene (17%), Terpinolene (0.9%), δ-elemene (2.6%), alpha-copaene (2.4%), beta-caryophyllene (28.1%), alpha-humulene (1.4%), őī-cadinene (0.7%)
    Uses: With its energizing aroma, it is used for chilblains, arthritis, anaemia, muscular aches and pains, poor circulation, colds and flu, infections and viruses, rheumatic pains, sprains.
    Blends well with: Lemon, lime, lavender, sage, sandalwood, mandarin, ylang-ylang, juniper, bergamot, clary sage, clove, giner, geranium, coriander, grapefruit, fennel and frankincense oils.
    Interesting Facts: Black pepper was considered sacred in the the distant past where it was used as currency, so valuable - it was traded for gold. It was one of the prized exported item from India.
    Safety:
  • Petitgrain Mandarin Oil

    Botanical binomial: Citrus reticulata var. mandarin

    Family: Rutaceae

    Other names:

    Country of Origin: Egypt

    Part of plant used in production: Leaves

    Methods of production: Steam distillation

    Description: Mandarin trees are small, rounded citrus tree with slender, drooping branches and narrow dark green leaves. During the spring, delicate, fragrant white blossoms.
    Characteristics: Petitgrain Mandarin oil has a fresh, slightly floral aroma with a bitter undertone.
    Properties: Analgesic, anti-bacterial, anti-convulsant, anti-depressant, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-septic, anti-spasmodic, hypotensive, immune stimulant, insomnia, meditation, sedative.
    Constituents: D-limonene
    Uses: With its captivating aroma, it is great for calming emotions, combating stress and anxiety and elevating mood. It can be refreshing and help ease disharmony.
    Blends well with: Basil sweet, Bergamot, Clary Sage, Cypress, Geranium, Lavender, Lemon, Lime, Mandarin, Neroli, Orange sweet, Palmarosa, Rosemary verbenone, Sandalwood, Ylang ylang extra/complete/III.
    Interesting Facts:
    Safety: Due to the phototoxicity nature of petitgrain mandarin oil, it is important to avoid direct sunlight after topical application.
  • Pine, scotch

    Botanical binomial: Pinus silvestris

    Family: Pinaceae

    Other names: Pine oil, forest pine, pine needle, fir leaf oil, oleum folii pini sylvestris

    Country of Origin: Hungary

    Part of plant used in production: Needles

    Methods of production: Steam distillation

    Description: A tall evergreen tree with reddish-brown fissured bark, pointy cones, long paired needles, and a flat crown growing up to 40 metres in height. Pines are native to Eurasia, but have been cultivated in many parts of the world, including North America for centuries.
    Characteristics: Pine oil is colourless to pale yellow with a strong, dry-balsamic, turpentine- like odour.
    Properties: Antimicrobial, antineuralgic, antirheumatic, antiseptic (pulmonary, urinary), antiviral, bactericidal, cholagogue, deodorant, expectorant, insecticidal, restorative, rubefacient, stimulant (adrenal cortex, circulation and nervous system).
    Constituents: pinene (14-58%), pinene (4-36%), limonene (1-8%), myrcene (0.5-7%), bornyl acetate (trace-21%).
    Uses: Pine essential oil is used in household products such as detergents, soaps, and disinfectants. It is helpful in cases of asthma, bronchitis, laryngitis and influenza and to overcome fatigue. It may be used in a vasopressor to cleanse a space of negative energy and unpleasant odours.
    Blends well with Cedarwood, cinnamon, clove, cypress, eucalyptus, lavender, marjoram, myrthle, niaouli, peppermint, rosemary, thyme, tea tree.
    Interesting Facts: Pine is recommended as a preventative cure in the fall season to boost the immune system and energize the body. In history, the properties and benefits of pine oil have been described in great detail and accuracy by many early physicians. This includes Hippocrates, Pliny, and Marguerite Maury.
    Safety: Non-toxic, non-irritant (except in very high doses), possibly sensitizing. Recommended dilution is 10%.
  • Pimento berries

    Botanical binomial: Pimenta officinalis

    Family: Myrtaceae

    Other names: Pimento officinalis, myrtaceae berry oil, allspice

    Country of Origin: Guatemala

    Part of plant used in production: Dried, crushed, fully grown, but unripe fruits

    Methods of production: Steam distillation

    Description: The pimento tree is indigenous to the Caribbean Islands. These evergreen trees are between 6 and 11 metres tall, with the primary branches forming at about 1-3 meters off the groud. It is a dioecious tree, and although both varieties blossom, it is believed that only females give berries.
    Characteristics: Pimento oil is brownish yellow with a spicy-sweet, clove and woody aroma with a slightly warm phenolic nuance.
    Properties: Antidepressant, analgesic, tonic, sedative.
    Constituents: Eugenol (85.00 %), isoeugenol (1.00 %), methyl eugenol (15.00 %).
    Uses: As a stronger replacement of the greatly adored pimento spice, the essential oil is mostly used to flavour foods such as meats, canned goods, table sauces, pickles and confectionery. It is also an ingredient in bay rum and other liqueurs. Pimento oil is a pain reliever and may be used for cramps, intestinal pains, muscular strains, or tooth aches. It relieves stress and alleviates symptoms of depression and nervous exhaustion.
    Blends well with Clove bud, eucalyptus, geranium, ginger, lavender absolute, lemon oil, patchouli, and ylang-ylang.
    Interesting Facts: Pimento was first discovered in Jamaica by the Spanish explorers in 1509 . These explorers were greatly impressed by the taste and aroma of the leaves and berries.
    Safety: The recommended dilution is 2%. Non-toxic, non-irritant, may be sensitizing.




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